Peru is a South American country that houses a section of the Amazon rainforest and Machu Picchu, an ancient Inca high in the Andes. The region around Machu Picchu, including the Sacred Valley, the Inca Trail and the colonial city of Cusco, is rich in archaeological sites. On the arid Peruvian coast of Peru is Lima, the capital, with a preserved colonial center and important collections of pre-Columbian art.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has given rise to a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cooking, literature and music.


Peru is bordered to the north by Ecuador and Colombia, to the east by Brazil, to the southeast by Bolivia, to the south by Chile and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely diverse country in biodiversity, with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes that extend vertically from the north to the southeast of the country to the rainforest tropical region of the Amazon Basin to the east with the Amazon River.

Official languages

Spanish, Quechua y Aymara.





Flag and Coat of Arms


Geography of Peru

Peru is an extremely diverse country, with 11 ecological regions and 84 of the 117 different types of “living zones” in the world. It has a great variety of landscapes thanks to its geography, which also provides a wide range of natural resources. The country has 3 main regions according to the traditional method of dividing the country by altitude:

  • Amazon Rainforest
  • Highlands
  • Coast

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